In 2015, the DC Living Building Challenge Collaborative sponsored the Affordable Living Design Competition (ALDC). Over 20 teams from the DC area and beyond worked to design a small community (10-15 units) of single family dwellings capable of meeting the Imperatives of the Living Building Challenge without resorting to currently allowed Exceptions under that rating system.
There are many different visions for regeneratively designed communities of various sizes & densities.
Arcologies, a fusion of Architecture and Ecology, were envisioned by Paolo Soleri in the 1960s and 70s as completely integrated megastructures, small cities in a single building of mammoth proportions. Living, working, shopping, agriculture, power generation, water purification, waste management and transportation were all woven together in a fully three-dimensional marvel of engineering and architecture. Everything was recycled, nothing went to waste. Passive solar heating and natural cooling strategies were often intrinsic to the overall form of the arcologies (apses to capture the warmth of the sun & ventilation cores hundreds of feet high).
Americans pride themselves on being fiercely independent. We have spent the better part of the last 200 years fighting to keep the Government (first the British, then our own) out of our personal lives. Over the past 100 years or so, however, we have been giving up more and more control to others for the sake of convenience.
Our food is grown by someone else (usually on a factory farm) and driven cross country to the store. Power to provide light and other services is generated for us by the utility company. The utility company, in turn, relies on gas or coal provided by other companies. Our water is taken from distant rivers or lakes or aquifers and treated with chemicals in a large industrial plant before being pumped to our houses. Waste disappears into the sewer or the garbage truck and goes… well… SOMEplace. The fact is that most of us have no IDEA where our food, water or power come from and where our waste goes. We are generally not encouraged to find out. Most of us can no longer fend for ourselves, but must pay others to do it.
Regenerative design, and indeed the best architectural designs in general, spring from a deep understanding of the site and a sense of place. In a previous post, we talked about the Regenerative City House site location, the clients and their goals for the project. Here, we’ll talk about site analysis. You can use a similar process to analyze your own site.
It is common practice to analyze a site to determine the best building location and orientation based on views, proximity to the road, parking, local zoning, soil conditions (ground water and bearing capacity) and so on.
It is also not unusual to map existing vegetation in order to avoid unnecessary site preparation and to preserve specimen trees (those that inspire poetic outbursts).
For a large part of the 20th century, that was all the site analysis you needed; mechanical heating and cooling and electric lighting took care of the rest. Landscaping was intended to serve the building (generally as decoration); designers rarely asked themselves how the building could improve the on-site ecology.
In regenerative design (which is an extension of sustainable design), site analysis is more comprehensive. The goals here include taking advantage of natural light, air and water flows, and to promote cooperation between the building and landscape (rather than the landscape* serving the building alone). Lyle (ref.1), Yang (ref.2) and Mollison (ref.3) each include some great thoughts on comprehensive site analysis.
* In the context of regenerative design, the term “landscape” should be interpreted not merely as decorative trees and bushes, lawns and follies, but as a healthy functioning ecosystem supporting wildlife as well as the human community.